Drs. Katalin Karikó and Drew Weissman from the University of Pennsylvania have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their groundbreaking work in mRNA biology. Their research, dating back to the 1980s, focused on harnessing messenger RNA (mRNA) to instruct cells to produce specific proteins, laying the foundation for mRNA-based therapies. They overcame challenges of immune response and mRNA delivery, allowing for clinical use. Their work enabled the rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines by companies like Moderna and BioNTech, revolutionizing vaccine production. Beyond COVID-19, their research holds promise for treating various diseases and potential applications in cancer therapy.